Modern Panjistani پنجستانی

langague is the name ascertained by Raja Mohammd Afzal Khan of london UK ( 2002) and some other people.

this langauge was also called pothohari, mirpuri and Northen Lahnda, etc by both Prof. C. shackle and Sir Geroge Gierson( his famous work called LSI) sometimes and is very popular in Rawalpindi and Isalamabad and also in Azad Kashmir. All these lanaguges have had some litarary works published since the late 2000s (Starting national cenus in 1981, have had separate recordings). They have had semi-official status at regional level.

Modern Panjistani
(formly; Potwari/Mirpuri/Wsetren Pahari/Northern Lahnda, etc)

Panjistani language is a termed formulated in the 2000s by m. afzal and others and the standard language is based on the literary varieties of pothoary-pahahri of North-Eastern panjab (covering pothohar, Jehlum, northern shahpur, Chahwal and mirpur/poonch regions of azad kashmir) .

It is widely spoken in the northern parts of Pakistan and in Kashmir, significant places are Rawalpindi and Mirpur. It is semi-officially written and Perso-Arabic standardised orthography is utilised. Speakers literate in Urdu often write mostly in Perso-Arabic style and do not sometimes regard Panjistani as a literary language. When in some cases Panjistani is written, the Perso-Arabic orthography is utilised or it is written in Roman Panjistani, which is used for the writing of Urdu and other regional lanaguges in Roman script. This is largely the case in the UK where a large percentage of panjistani (Pahari-Potohari) speakers reside, who are found to constitute the majority of the expatriate Pakistani (from the Potohar or panjistan plateau e.g. Gujar Khan, Rawalpindi, Kahuta etc.) and Jammu & Kashmiri community. Panjistani is widely spoken and is used in many traditional poetry due to its richness, the most famous of which is by the poet Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, whose poetry is still performed and enjoyed to this present day in westrn and nothern Punjab regions and Azad Kashmir. Panjistani is an interestingly unique language that has some resemblance and close relations to Eastern or Jurdgha Punjabi, but more interestingly has kashmiri inflections to the soundings of the words.

briefly Hindko/sarhardi and seraiki/multani These two languages have been influnced by pakhto/pashto and sindhi lanaguges respectively for for long times so thye have many words borrowed from 2 neighbouring language groups.

The expert m . afzal, london,2002 has been the first one to come to "compromise position" between Sir Geroge Gierson and C. Shackle with repesct to Panjistani(pahari/pothohari etc), hinkdko (jandali, ghebi etc), seariki (multani) and panjbai (majhi/central)lanaguges classifaiction within the North-Western zone of Indo-Aryan family of langauges (of south asian region).

He has proposed recently that panjistani be divided into six main daicltcs/varities.

The six major dalicets of modern panjistani, ar as follows;





5/nothern Shahpuri/salt range shahpuri



1)"Panjistani langauge: Development from Northern Lahnda (NL) cluster" by m. afzal,london, uk; 2001.

2)"Hindko/sarhardi lanaguage from Western Lahnda,peashwari-jandali cluster" By m. afzal,london,uk; 2002

3)" the Three modern lahnda langauges and (Eeastern) panjabi and semi-officail status since 1981 :Hindko (Noth-Western Lahnda), Panjistani ( Northern Lahnda) and Seraiki (Southern Lahnda ), london,uk ;1998

4)"The compromised position within the gierson and shcakle Lahnda sub-divions and classisfaction of Modren panjistani(Noth-Eastren Lahnda), Hindko(North-Westren Lahnda, NWL) and seraiki (South-Westren Lahnda,SWL),by m. afzal, london uk, 1997

5)The shortcomings of classification models of C. shackle and Sir Greoge Gierson of lahnda sub-divisons and Eastern panjabi lanaguges, by m. afzal,london, uk; 2001

6)"Modern Panjistani langauge from pothoary,Mirpuri,pahari" by m. afzal, london, uk;2001

7)The third model of classification panjistani, eastren panjabi seraiki/multani and hindko/sarhadi langauge groups by m. afzal,london,uk; 2002

8)"confusion and manpliution of Keith Brown and Sarah Ogilvie in 'concise enclopedia of languages of the world' between Panjistani (pothoari-pahari) and Hindko (Sarhadi/peshwari)" by m. afzal, london, UK; 2008 8)"The Three Lahnda groups languages and eastren panjabi as formluated BY Gierson" by M. Afzal, London, UK; 2009


10)the 3 main sub-divsions of lahnda,2007


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