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Pakistan

Armed Forces

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Military of Pakistan (Urdu: }پاک عسکری) is the principal defence organization of Pakistan. It consists of the:

   * Pakistan Army
   * Pakistan Navy
   * Pakistan Air Force
   * Paramilitary forces of Pakistan
   * Pakistan Coast Guard
   * Pakistan Strategic Nuclear Command

Approximately 620,000 personnel are on active duty in the military which is the world's 7th largest armed force as of 2007. Combined with the 302,000 strong Paramilitary forces and the Coast Guard, the Military of Pakistan has a total size of nearly 1,000,000 personnel.

Pakistan's Military is led by an officer corps that is not restricted by social class or nobility and are appointed from a variety of sources such as service academies and direct appointment from both civilian status and the enlisted ranks.

The armed forces are highly respected in civil society and the social ranks as an institution. September 6 known as Defence Day commemorates the military’s role in defence of the nation.

The Pakistani Military is a completely volunteer force and has been involved in many conflicts with India. Combined with this extensive combat experience, the Military is also actively involved in contributing to United Nations peacekeeping efforts. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani Military personnel as advisers in many African, South Asian and Arab countries. The Pakistani Military maintained Division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and the first Gulf War to help the Coalition.

History

Before 1947, the Military of Pakistan was part of the Army of India, as the armed force was known as under the British Raj, fought in both the World Wars and the numerous Anglo-Afghan Wars. After independence, the military was divided between India and Pakistan with a ratio of 64% going to India and 36% for Pakistan. Post-independence, it has fought three wars against India, several border skirmishes with Afghanistan, and an extended border skirmish with India in 1999 and is currently conducting anti-terrorist operations along the border areas of Afghanistan. The Military of Pakistan has participated in several United Nations peacekeeping operations .

See page on Wars fought by Pakistan

Organization and Command Structure

The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee deals with all problems bearing on the military aspects of state security and is charged with integrating and coordinating the three services. In peacetime, its principal function is planning; in time of war, its chairman is the principal staff officer to the president in the supervision and conduct of the war. The secretariat of the committee serves as the principal link between the service headquarters and the Ministry of Defence in addition to coordinating matters between the services. The three branches within the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee deal with planning, training, and logistics. Affiliated with the committee are the offices of the engineer in chief, the director general of medical service, the director of inter-services intelligence, and the director of inter-services public relations.

Military Academies

Pakistan has some of the best military academies in Asia and many officer corps from Asian as well as some African and Eastern European countries attend Pakistan's Military Academies.

The Military Academies Are:

   * Pakistan Military Academy
   * Pakistan Air Force Academy
   * Pakistan Naval Academy PNS Rahbar

Some other Professional and Technical Military Institutes:

   * National Defence University
   * Command and Staff College
   * Air War College
   * Pakistan Naval War College
   * Military College of Engineering
   * College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
   * Army Medical College
   * Military College of Signals
   * College of Aeronautical Engineering
   * College of Flying Training
   * Pakistan Navy Engineering College

Military Justice

The military justice system rests on three similar service laws: the Pakistan Army Act (1952), the Pakistan Air Force Act (1953), and the Pakistan Navy Ordinance (1961). The acts are administered by the individual services under the central supervision of the Ministry of Defence. The army has a four-tier system; the air force and navy, three-tier systems. The differences in tier levels reflect whether their competence extends to officers or enlisted men only and the severity of the punishment that may be imposed.

Civilian courts cannot question decisions handed down by the military court and double jeopardy is prohibited. In cases where a military person is alleged to have committed a crime against a civilian, the central government determines whether military or civilian courts have jurisdiction. Former servicemen in civilian life who are accused of felonies committed while on active duty are liable for prosecution under the jurisdiction of military courts. These courts are empowered to mete out a wide range of punishments including death. All sentences of imprisonment are served in military prisons or detention barracks.

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